Geographical location of Azerbaijan
Currently, the total area of the Republic of Azerbaijan is 86,6 km2 and 20% territory has been occupied by Armenia. The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east. Azerbaijan is in the same latitude with Spain, Greece, Turkey, China and Korea.
The remont points:
- Guton mountain - in the north
- Astara river – in the south
- Jandargol or Sadarak township – in the west
- Oil Rocks (or Shahdili nose) – in the east.
The total length of borders is 3472 km. Azerbaijan shares borders with 5 countries:
- In the north – with Russia (390 km), Caucasus watershed ridge, Samur river, Sudur ridge;
- In the north-west – with Georgia (480 km), Alazan (Ganikh) and Iori (Gabirri) along the river valleys;
- In the west – with Armenia (1007 km), Murguz Shahdagh, East Sevan, Mehri ridges and the Karabakh volcanic plateau. It is also bordered 224 km to Nakhchivan along Daralayaz and Zangezur ridges.
- In the south-west – with Turkey (15 km), Araz river;
- In the south – with Iran (765 km), Talish mountains, Araz, Astara and Bulgar rivers;
- In the east – surrounded by Caspian Sea (825 km). It is bordered with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia and Iran.
Pirallahi, Chilov, the Zira, Dash Zira, Khara Zira, Gil Zira, Sangi Mugan, Zanbil Islands, Baku and Absheron archipelagos, Sari, Kurdili peninsulas refers to Azerbaijan. Sari and Kurdili peninsulas turned into islands as a result of rising level of Caspian Sea.
Azerbaijan is located on the borders of Europe and Asia continents, the north and east peninsulas. Azerbaijan is inside of mainland, but has a coastal position. Azerbaijan ships can sail out Atlantic Ocean through Volga-Don and Volga-Baltic canals and to the Arctic Ocean through the Baltic-White Sea canal.
9 climate types exist in Azerbaijan. Climate and agro climate resources are understood as a mount of material and energy used in various spheres of economy of climate elements and social life. Lands in 82 names and types have spread to this area. The area of unit land fund of our country is 86415 ha and divides into 7 categories according to designation. Available lands for agriculture consist of 4745.6 thousand hectares, arable lands - 1835.7 thousand hectares, pastures and hayfields - 2682.9 thousand hectares, the lands of special protected areas - 193.7 thousand hectares. The climate reserves of the country is favorable for using resort treatment and the rest opportunities. The established and well-known major resorts are located in Absheron (Bilgah, Buzovna, Zagulba), Istisu (balneoteropevtik resort), Lankaran (climate-balneoterapevtik seaside resort) and Naftalan (balneoterapevtik resort). Simultaneously, it is impossible not to note the miracle of oil with treatment importance. A number of diseases are treated on the basis of world-famous Naftalan oil. The country has also regions like Absheron with sunny beaches, Nabran-Yalama zone with rare forest-sea complex, Shusha-Turshsu zone with mind climate, clean mountain air, precious mineral waters, Istisu resort, Lankaran-Astara zone with sulfur-rich mineral waters and sea-mountain climate, Galaalt; resort mineral water rarely found in nature and favorable climatic conditions, Ganja-Hajikend-Goy-gol, Guba-Khachmaz-Nabran, Zagatala-Shaki zones, Nakhchivan riched with diverse and abundant mining waters healing salt caves and so on. According to some reports there are 12,000 tourism-recreation, balneological complexes in the country.
Natural resources of Azerbaijan
Wealth of mineral resources in Azerbaijan relates with complexity of the geological structure. Economically most important natural resources of Azerbaijan include oil, natural gas, metal ores, agro climate and soil. Azerbaijan ranks the first place in the South Caucasus thanks to oil, iron ore and alunite reserves. The 2/3 parts (70%) of Azerbaijan are oil and gas. The main fields are in Absheron-Gobustan, the shelf zone of the Caspian Sea the South-East Shirvan and Ajinohur-Jeyranchol. Azerbaijan oil has spreaded in the Cenozoic aged sedimentary rocks. But the oil in Muradkhanli (Kur-Araz) field was found out in the Mesozoic era volcanic rocks. There is only healing and non-flammable oil in Naftalan through the world. In the last years the new oil fields - Azeri, Chirag, Guneshli and others was found in the Caspian Sea. The main gas fields are in Garadagh, Zira, Gurgan, shelf zone of the Caspian Sea, Baku and Absheron archipelago. Oil and gas are extracted from the depth of 3000 meters. There are combustible shale reserves in Ismayilli and Gobustan.
The ore minerals are in magmatic rocks of mountainous areas, “Azerbaijan Ural” in the north slope of Caucases.The reason why the area is so named relates with existing wealth ore fields as in Ural mountains. There are iron ore (Dashkesen, the largest field in the Caucasus), alunite (Zaylik, the world's 2nd largest field after China), copper (Gadabay, Kalbajar), gold (Kalbajar and Zangilan), mercury (Agyataq and Shorbulag fields in Nakhichevan and Kalbajar) in the country. Azerbaijan has 3 polymetallic ore fields: Gumushlu (Nakhichevan), Mehmana (Aghdara), Filizchay (Balakan). Molybdenum, tungsten is extracted from Paraghachay in Nakhchivan.
Non-ore minerals have spreaded in the sedimentary rocks of plains. There is limestone in Absheron, Gobustan, Tovuz, Dash Salahli, Zeyem Aghdam; travertine in Kelbajar and Shahtakhti (Nakhchivan); marble in Dashkesen; gypsum in Yuxari Aghjakand, zeolite in Tovuz, salt fields in Absheron and Nakchivan, as well as iodine-bromine water resources in the Neftchala, Mishovdag, Babazanan, Boyukshor (Absheron).
Mineral springs are Istisu in Kalbajar; Sirab, Badamli, Vaykhir in Nakchivan; Surakhani and Sikh in Absheron; Galaalti in Davachi, Ilisu in Gakh; Khaltan, Jimmy and Khashi in Guba; Turshsu and Shirlan in Shusha. In addition, there are a lot of thermal (hot) water resources in Azerbaijan. For instance, temperature of thermal waters of the Kura-Araz lowland is 150°C and 60°-80°C in Istisu mineral spring.